This object was aimed to show the possibility of natural regeneration of different tree species inside of a red deer preserve. Poněšice red deer preserve is situated near the centre of South Bohemia – České Budějovice (better known as the town where the Czech Budwiser is being cooked). The history of Poněšice preserve is long. The first notice comes from 1628. It had lot of owners. The last private owner was the Schwarzenberg family (until 1948). The preserve is in state ownership now, managed by the State forest service (LCR, s.p.) since 1992.
|Total area of the Poněšice preserve is||1.550 hectares|
|of that – stand area||1.443 hectares|
|– pastures||76 hectares|
|– water areas||2 hectares|
|– other||29 hectares|
A tree species composition 53% conifers (Norway spruce. Scotch pine, Fir, Larch) and 47% broadleaf s (Beech, Oak, Tilia sp., Horse chestnut) Forest management in deer preserve was always different. The tree-species composition needed more fruit-bearing species (Horse chestnut, Beech, Oak, etc.). Also the reforestation and silviculture methods had to consider the big number of animals around the area. More than a half of the area was managed by clearcuts. Those places were then used as a deer pasture. Logging as well as thinning were made only during wintertime – to enrich a deer menu. All new based mixed stands needed strong fencing. Despite of all above mentioned methods the forest stands were highly damaged by browsing, especially when the deer abundance was too high. Special gene resources were established all around our country in the 80th. of this century. They are characterised as original forest stands or stands with high percentage of original tree species. With area, that is big enough to keep the genetic variability of the population. Those stands are selfreproductable. In Ponesice preserve there are about 1.000 hectares of those stands. What we are trying to do now is to selfreproduce most of the original stands despite of the deer presence. It might sound unbelievable, but it works. The number of the deer was reduced by 50% (from original 400 pieces) in last five years. Suddenly the natural regeneration of Beech, Oak and Tilia sp. started to show all around the area. The future reproduction of most of the stands inside the deer preserve will be made by shelterwood felling, that begins inside of the stand. The young advanced growth should be set free. Clearings inside will be filled up with an artificial regeneration. Fruitfulness of the original stand will be supported.
1. Stand 337 J6 – Budka
area 3,96 hectares, age 155, Spruce 35%, Beech 65%. In 1994 1,40 hectares were enclosed. Today we are able to compare between the enclosed and free areas. The natural regeneration works in both.
2. Stand 351 C2 – Rulík
area 14,11 hectares, age 140, Spruce 5%, Oak 1%, Beech 94% Not yet worked in stand with natural regeneration of Spruce, Beech and Sycamore maple under the original stand.
3. Complex of three stands – 350 G5, 350 D6 and 357 E3
area 18,61 hectares, average age 168, Spruce 2%, Beech 68%, Oak 8%, Tilia sp. 12% Stands are worked in, the natural regeneration is continuing to grow. Some places are damaged by browsing from about 5-6 years ago.
4. Stand 335 L3 – U staré boudy
area 3,92 hectares, age 123, Spruce 3%, Oak 55%, Beech 42% Natural regeneration of Beech, Oak and Spruce. The best quality mother trees will be freed for the next fruitfulness.